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bismuth hydroxide, also known as BiH2O, is a bismuth hydride and is a common reagent for a wide range of applications. It is used in the manufacture of bismuth salts, as an adsorbent and as a metallurgical additive.

Physical and Chemical Properties:

bismuth hydroxide has a polarizable charge, which makes it suitable for use as an ionization agent. Its ionization is very rapid and occurs at pH values up to 3.5. It can also be oxidized to bismuth oxide (BiO2) by hydrogen peroxide or to a bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) by concentrated hydrochloric acid at high temperatures.

Solubility and Binding:

Bismuth has a relatively low solubility in water. It can be soluble in acid solutions, but is less so in alkaline solutions. It is particularly soluble in dilute nitric acid and glycerol, as well as alcoholic solutions.

In soil, bismuth binds to dissolved organic matter (DOM). This is a common feature of metal ions that have a high affinity for natural organic matter. This explains why bismuth is found in a variety of soils and sediments, and why it is a component of many groundwater samples.

Bismuth is also a common component in some medications, such as cholet(r) bismuth cream with pectin (CBCHP). This antidiarrheal drug has been approved in Argentina and appears to have no adverse effects or contraindications. It has also been shown to be effective in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori[21,22]. CBHG is available as an oral rehydration solution (ORS) with 30 mg/ml of colloidal bismuth hydroxide gel.