On the basis of general plastics and engineering plastics the strength, strength, flame retardancy as well as impact resistance, toughness, aging resistance and antibacterial properties of plastics are improved by filling, blending or strengthening as well as other methods.
How can Nanomaterials alter plastics?
1. In the case of reinforced plastics, resistance to aging is a problem.
The process of aging polymer materials, especially photooxidation aging, starts at the surface of products or materials, such as discoloration, pulverization, cracking, glossiness decrease, and slowly moves into the interior. The anti-aging properties of polymers directly affect the longevity of its service as well as the environment, in particular for agricultural plastics and plastic construction substances. This isn’t just an indicator that requires to be given a lot of attention, but an important subject in polymer chemical chemistry. The wavelength of UV in sunlight ranges from 200 to 400nm. The ultraviolet in the band 280400nm may destroy the polymer molecular chain, thus making the material more prone to aging. Nano-oxides, such as nano-alumina or nano-titanium oxide and so on, have good absorption properties for infrared and microwave. The correct mixing of nano SiO2 and TiO2 can absorb a considerable amount of ultraviolet rays . This can prevent plastics from being damaged by sunlight, and help in preventing plastic products from cracking, discoloration and light degradation, thus making these materials anti-aging.
2. Improve the antibacterial and anti-mildew properties of plastics
Antibacterial plastics are usually made by the addition of antimicrobial ingredients or masterbatch. This is then added into the resin. Because plastic molding requires to go through high temperature the inorganic antimicrobial agents that are able to adapt to the extreme temperature. Traditional antibacterial metal powders , such as copper sulfate and zinc nutrients are not easily to incorporate directly into thermoplastics. Inorganic nano-antibacterial powders are specially processed to produce antibacterial plastic masterbatch. It’s simple to be used in plastic products and has excellent interactions with other plastics. It helps in the dispersion of antimicrobial agents. Inorganic silver ions may be transformed into nano titanium dioxide nano-silicon aluminum oxide, as well as many other nano-materials inorganic, and this powder is characterized by antibacterial characteristics, mixed with plastics, extruded in the form of ultraviolet radiation to create antibacterial plastics. its antibacterial properties are derived by the slow release of antimicrobials, so as to achieve the antibacterial effect.
3. Increase the toughness and durability of plastics
If the second component when added onto the polymeric matrix it is formed into a composite and a more robust material is obtained by compounding, which improves the strength of the material and also increase the impact resistance of the substance. Nanomaterials have emerged as the possibility of a novel method to enhance the strength and alteration of the plastics. The defects on the surface of the tiny particle size dispersed phases are very small, and there are plenty of unpaired particles. The ratio of the surface atomic number to the total number of nanoparticles rises dramatically with decreasing particle size. Crystal field environments and interaction energy of surface atoms are different from those of internal atoms, so they exhibit great chemical activity. Because of the micronization of the crystal field, and the addition of active surface atomsand atoms in the crystal, the surface energies is dramatically increased, and it is able to be tightly integrated with polymer substrate and has high compatibility. When the substrate is exposed to external forces and pressure, the ion becomes so easy to release from the substrate , and is able to better transfer the stress. In the same way, under the interaction of the stress field that is created, there will be more cracks and plastic deformations that occur in the material, which could cause the substrate to yield and consume a great deal of force, in order for the purpose of toughening and strengthening while at the same time. The most commonly used nano-materials include nano analumina, nano silica nano-calcium carbonate, etc.
4. Enhance the thermal conductivity plastics
Plastics that are thermally conductive are a type of plastic material with good thermal conductivity. These tend to be higher than 1wper (m. K.). The thermal conductive plastics are becoming more and more commonly used because of their lightweight they have, their rapid thermal conductivity easy injection molding, lower processing cost and so on. Because of its high insulation and thermal conductivity, the use of nano-alumina in thermal conductive plastics, thermal conductive rubber, construction age, thermally conductivity coatings, and many other fields. Compared with metal filler, nano-alumina and nano-magnesia do not only increase the thermal conductivity, however, it also enhances the insulation effectiveness, and the physical properties that plastics have can also be improved.
5. Improve how plastics are processed
Some polymers, such as high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with an average viscosity molecular weight of more than 150 min, have outstanding quality properties, however they are difficult to be formed and processed because of their large viscosity. This restricts their popularization and application. Taking advantage of the low interlaminar friction factor of layered silicate sheet, the nano-rare-earth / ultra high molecular weight polyethylene compound was developed by mixing UHMWPE with layered silicate which can effectively reduce the interlocking of the UHMWPE molecular chains and lower the viscosity. The composite plays an important role in fluid lubrication, greatly increasing the efficiency of its processing.
6. The addition of nanomaterials makes plastics useful.
Metal nanoparticles contain heterogeneous nucleation, which can induce the formation in some crystal types that give toughness to the materials. When polypropylene is stuffed with the metal nanoparticles having a melting point of low it is observed that they could serve as of conductive channel, enhancing and hardening in polypropylene in addition, its low melting temperature increases the processing efficiency of composites.
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