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Magnesium sulfide, MgS, is an odourless white powder with many industrial applications. It is produced naturally in the mineral magnesite or artificially from magnesium carbonate, MgCO3. The chemical formula can also be written as MgS2H2S3. This compound reacts with strong acids such as hydrochloric, nitric and phosphoric acid to form water and hydrogen gas. It is also used as a lab reagent and photodetector and in some cases for steel production.

MgS is a good candidate for conversion/alloy-type electrode materials in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), due to its low potential and high theoretical capacity. However, limited cycling stability and a challenging fabrication technique have so far hindered its practical application.

Here, we report a synthesis of a novel class of hollow MgS nanocrystals homogeneously distributed on graphene (MgS@G). The resulting composite exhibits robust nanoarchitecture and admirable interactions, which promote a spatially confined lithiation/delithiation process, optimize the dynamics of two-step conversion/alloying reactions, and induce a synergetic pseudocapacitive storage contribution. The resulting MgS@G exhibits a high energy density of up to 1208 mAh g-1 over 3000 cycles, which is significantly enhanced compared to the pure MgS material.