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Magnesium fluoride is a white crystalline salt that occurs naturally as the rare mineral sellaite. It is used to polarize corrective lenses in eyeglasses, as a window for atomic-force microscopy, and for optical components including lasers. It has a tetragonal structure and is birefringent. It is transparent across a wide range of wavelengths, and its high transmissivity in the vacuum ultraviolet makes it an important material for windows and focusing mirrors for deep ultraviolet and excimer lasers.

The melting point of mgf2 is 1255°C. The crystal is hard with good mechanical properties, and it has a low chemical reactivity. It is also very stable at temperatures above the melting point, and it is not prone to deliquesce or corrode. Its high melting point makes it a desirable material for high-temperature applications such as military optics and optical fiber communication.

A solid’s melting point is the temperature at which enough energy in the form of heat is added to break the attractive forces that hold the particles together, changing the particle arrangement from a tightly packed crystalline structure to a less ordered liquid. The enthalpy of fusion, which is the change in the atoms’ kinetic energy in their transition to the liquid state, depends on the symmetry of the particles and their sizes.

A very simple device for measuring the melting point of a crystalline solid consists of an oil bath in which a sample is placed. A small portion of the sample is exposed to the oil through a thin glass tube and, with the aid of a magnifier, the melting of the individual grains can be observed as the temperature increases. More sophisticated melting point apparatuses, such as a Kofler bench or differential scanning calorimetry, provide information about the temperature at which a substance melts and its enthalpy of fusion.