Bulletproof Material Development
William, the president of the United States. McEnley was shot to death, and many began looking for bulletproof techniques.
The first bulletproof vests were developed during World War I. The main technique was to place steel plates into natural fiber fabrics. However, bulletproof vests have been largely ignored because they are too heavy and do not provide a good bulletproof effect.
British engineers first created a bulletproof vest using three high-manganese plates. The bulletproof vest came soon after by the United States, which used high-strength nylon and aluminum alloy. While these two types of bulletproof vests are much stronger and harder than the ones of the past, the weight issue is still a problem.
DuPont invented a synthetic fiber, “Kevlar”, in 1970. Since then the bulletproof vest has seen a major transformation. Kevlar has 1.6 times the shrapnel power of nylon and two times more steel. This is because it solves completely the bulletproof vest issue.
Today, bulletproof technology is advancing at an incredible pace. There are always new bulletproof materials being created. There are many materials that can be used to protect bulletproof technology, including metals (special steel, aluminum, titanium alloy), ceramic sheet, corundum,boron carbide and silicon carbide), fiber, nylon, Kevlar as well as liquid protective materials. Bulletproof materials not only can be used to create bulletproof vests but they also have a wide range of applications in aircraft warships and armored fighting vehicle systems as well as civil and military special vehicles.
Ceramic bulletproof materials
Ceramic materials are more durable than traditional metal materials and have higher hardness, low density, high strength, good elastic modulus, resistance to radiation, heat shock resistance, and radiation protection.
One-phase bulletproof ceramic
Bulletproof ceramics have been rapidly developing since the 21st-century.
1. Alumina ceramics
Alumina ceramic, an ion bond material, has high chemical bond force, high melt point (2050), excellent oxidation resistance, chemical inertia and good oxidation resistance. Sintered products are smooth, small and affordable. This makes it a popular choice for armored vehicles, military bulletproof clothing and other applications. Al2O3’s low performance in ballistics is due to its high density and low fracture toughness.
2. Boron carbide ceramics
Boron carbide has strong covalent bonds, as it is stronger than diamond or cubic boron. The high melting points and exceptional hardness of B4C (3545GPa) make this material second to diamond. In addition, the materials have excellent mechanical properties and are highly wear-resistant. B4C ceramic is an armored clay with the lowest density. It also has a high elastic modulus which make it an ideal material for space and military applications. B4C ceramics have a high price, about 10 times higher than alumina, and are very brittle. This limits their use as single-phase protective armour.
3. Silicon carbide ceramics
This covalent bond of silicon carbide is very strong, and it can still bond at high temperatures with high strength. This structural feature provides silicon carbide ceramics with excellent strength, wear resistance, corrosion resistance as well as high thermal conductivity. It also gives them good resistance to thermal shock. Silicon carbide ceramic has a low price, high performance and excellent cost-to-performance ratio.
Multiphase bulletproof clay
While single-phase ceramics may be bulletproof due to their unique properties, they are also susceptible to fracture and high brittleness. The strengthening and toughening for bulletproof ceramics is a popular research area. There are many methods for strengthening and toughening ceramics. These include functionally graded ceramics (multicomponent), lamellar design, and functionally graded ceramics.
Medvedovs ki studied silicon carbide matrix compounds such as SiC -Al2O3, SiC -Si3N4 -Al2O3, SiC -Si3N4 -Al2O3, SiC -Si1O3, SiC -Si3N4 -Al2O3, SiC -Si3N4 -Si2O3 etc. and prepared them through pressureless sintering or reaction sintering They have higher physical properties than single-material systems in terms of hardness and energy absorption. Composite ceramics made from SiC-based composite ceramics with a high protection coefficient can achieve grades 3 or 4. Both SiC-Si3N4 -Al2O3 prepared SiC and SiC based composite ceramics have high multi-impact resistence.
Modern warfare requires armored systems to meet increasingly high requirements. They must not only achieve omni-directional defense but also allow soldiers to move freely. The use of the bait trigger to disable the active armor of any incoming weapon has been a key advantage in combat. The use of transparent ceramics, such as magnesia and alumina spinel (AlON), has been used for armor protection. This can protect the human body while also allowing the ability to observe the situation.
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