Anode materials for lithium batteries
Materials that store and release Lithium ions are an essential part of the lithium battery. The anode material is responsible for absorbing lithium ions during the charging of a lithium battery and releasing them back to the positive electrolyte during the discharge. The anode material chosen directly impacts the cost, performance and safety of a lithium battery.
The characteristics of anode material for lithium batteries
Reversible capability: Reversible capacities refers the amount of lithium that the battery is able to store and release when charging and discharging. The higher reversible capacities, the higher energy density, and more energy can be stored and released.
Lithium ion diffusivity coefficient: The diffusion coefficient of lithium ions in anode materials indicates the difficulty with which lithium ions diffuse. The higher the diffusion coefficient the easier it is to move lithium ions and the better electrochemical performance the battery.
Electrochemical stability: The ability of anode materials to stabilize their structure and reactivity while the battery is charging or discharging. When the electrochemical performance of the anode is poor, battery life will be shortened and safety concerns may arise.
Cost: Considering the commercial application, the price of anode materials is also an important factor to be considered.Currently, lithium battery anode materials on the market mainly include graphite-based materials,
Lithium titanate and tin-based material are both good options. One of them is graphite-based material, which has high reversible capacities and good stability electrochemically, but costs a lot. Although lithium titanate has low cost and high electrochemical resistance, its reversible ability is limited. Tin-based material has a high capacity for reversible use and is low in cost. However, their electrochemical stabilty is poor. Anode material is suitable for different applications, battery systems and must be chosen and used according actual needs.
Research and development in battery materials is important because of their important role in lithium batteries. With the continued progress of technology, and the growing application demand, research and development for new anode material will become more active in the future. Currently, the main negative electrode materials are transition metal nitride (TMN), transition metal carbide (TMC), alloy-like material, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and two-dimensional material. These new materials will lead to the development of future lithium batteries anode materials due to their higher reversible capacitance, improved electrochemical stability, and lower cost.
Use of lithium anode materials
Applications of anode material are wide-ranging, and include a number of fields which require portable power sources. These include electronic products, vehicles with electric motors, power storage devices, etc. Following are some specific examples of application:
Electronic products, such as mobile phones, laptops, tablet PCs etc. Power is provided by lithium batteries. In these areas, anode material choice directly impacts energy density and charging speed as well as the life, safety, and longevity of the batteries.
Electric Vehicles - Electric vehicles use a high amount of energy to power the vehicle. Therefore, they must have high capacity, high density batteries. The anode material chosen is crucial to the safety and performance of electric vehicles.
Electricity Storage Systems. These include home energy systems, wind power storage systems and more. These systems are required to produce a large amount power during periods of peak demand, which is why they need large-capacity batteries with high energy-density. The anode material used directly impacts the performance and price of these systems.
What are the different types of anodes for lithium batteries?
A new type of lithium batteries, silicon-carbon batteries have anodes that are primarily silicon-based. Silicon-based material has a high reversible capacitance, high electrochemical stabilty and low cost. They have many applications in the field of batteries. There are three main types of silicon materials used as anode material in silicon-carbon battery:
Silicon-carbon materials: Silicon-carbon materials are a composite material that combines silicon-based materials with carbon-based substances. This material offers high reversible capacitance, high electrochemical stabilities and long lives, and can be better matched to the anode for improved battery performance. Silicon content in silicon carbon composites is adjustable to meet the needs of different applications.
Material made of silicon oxide: Silicon dioxide material is an excellent negative electrode with high electrochemical performance. It has a good cycle life, good safety, and high reversible capacities. This material has a low efficiency of the first charge/discharge. To improve this, it is necessary to use pre-lithiation techniques and other technologies.
Silicon nitride Material: silicon nitride, a new material for negative electrodes that combines both the benefits of silicon-based and nitride materials. This material has a high reversible capacitance, high electrochemical stability, and good electrical conductivity. Therefore, it is well suited for batteries.
Here are a few examples of the many types of anode material that are available.
Carbon nanotubes. These nanotubes have many advantages, including high electrical conductivity and chemical stability. Carbon nanotubes have a wide range of applications, including as anode material in lithium-ion cells with high reversible capacitance, stable charging/discharging, and long life.
Graphene : Graphene can be used as anode material in lithium-ion batteries with high reversible capacity, stable charge/discharge and long life. Graphene has good applications as anode materials in lithium-ion cells with high reversible capacities, stable charge/discharge and long lives.
Alloy materials. Alloys are a type of new anode materials with high reversible capacitance, stable charging/discharging and long-life. The disadvantage of alloys is their high cost and difficult preparation.
Metal oxide material: metal oxide is a new anode material with many advantages, including high reversible capacitance, stability of charge/discharge over time, long-term durability, excellent multiplicity performance, and low temperature performance. Metal oxide materials' disadvantages are their higher preparation costs and lower conductivity.
The following materials can be used as anodes for batteries:
Tin-based Materials: Tin-based materials have high reversible capacitance, good electrochemical stabilty and are low-cost. The disadvantages of using tin-based material are a reduced cycle life and the easy formation of dendrites. These factors reduce battery safety.
Oxygenate materials: Oxygenate materials are a new type anode with advantages such as high reversible capacities, stable charging and discharge, long-life and low costs. The oxygenate material's disadvantage is its poor kinetic performance for electrochemical reaction, which still needs to improve.
Transition metal-nitride materials: transition metal-nitride is a new material for negative electrodes. It has the advantage of high reversible capacities, stable charging, discharging and long life. Also, it performs better in electrochemical reactions. The preparation costs of transition metal material nitride are high and need to be further reduced.
Alloy materials. These materials include Si-C Composites, SnC Composites and many others. These materials offer a higher reversible capacitance and better charge/discharge stabilities, but their cost is high and they need to be further reduced.
The research, development, and application of battery anode material is important for a number of reasons, including improving battery performance, reducing costs, and ensuring battery safety. New battery anode material application will become more diverse with the continued progress of science, technology and application demand.
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