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Carbon is found widely in the crust of the earth and in its atmosphere. Carbon is essential to human life and production.
Diamonds are forever

Diamond, the hardest substance found in nature. Its hardness measures 4 times as much as corundum, and 8 times more than quartz.

What is the reason for diamond’s high hardness?

In the 1st Century AD, diamond was first mentioned in the literature. In the 1,600 years that followed, no one knew the true composition of diamond. The “material” of diamonds was only discovered in the second half the 18th century.

French chemist Lavoisier (1743) and other scientists conducted experiments during the 70s and 90s in the 18th century on burning diamonds with oxygen. The result was carbon dioxide, which is a combination between oxygen and carbon. substance. Carbon here is from diamond. Finally, these tests proved that carbon is the main component of diamond.

Although diamonds are composed of carbon, the reason for their high hardness is still unknown. Carbon is used in the production of pencil lead. But graphite has a softer mineral than human nails.

Why is the difference between diamond and graphite?

William Bragg (1862-1942), British physicist and his son, answered this question only in 1913. Bragg (1862-1942) and his son used X rays to study diamonds, and the arrangement of atoms. They discovered that every carbon atom was tightly combined with four surrounding carbon atoms in the crystal of diamonds, forming a dense 3-dimensional structure. This unique structure has never been observed in other minerals. Moreover, due to this dense structure, the diamond’s density is 3.5g/cm, which is approximately 1.5 times that of graphite. This dense structure is what gives diamonds their greatest hardness. Other words, diamonds are formed when carbon atoms are squeezed.

Synthetic diamond

It is the hardest material in nature. As such, it has a wide range of industrial applications, including as abrasive products, cutting tools with high hardness, wire drawing dies, and various drill bits. It is also a component of many precision tools.

Diamonds have many other excellent properties including super-hardness. It is called the “king” of hardness and the “king” of gems. The angle of diamonds crystals is 54deg44’8″. In the 1950s the United States successfully created synthetic diamonds by using graphite. Synthetic diamonds can be found in many areas of production and daily life. However, it is difficult to create large particles.

Graphite Graphite Graphite is a dark grey opaque fine-scale solid with metallic luster. It is soft with a greasy feeling and excellent electrical conductivity. The graphite atoms form a planar layer structure. Because the bonds between the layers are relatively weak, it is very easy to separate and slide between them. Main functions: making pencils, electrodes, tram cables, etc.

Fullerene was discovered as the fourth carbon crystal in 1985. It is found after graphite, linear carbon and diamond. Fullerene was discovered as a new industrial material. It is stiffer than steel, with a hardness that is higher than diamond.

It’s 100 times stronger than copper. It conducts electricity better, is more conductive, and weighs only 1/6 as much.

The columnar and tubular molecules can also be called carbon nanotubes, or Bucky Tubes. C60 is aromatic, soluble with benzene and sauce red. It can be produced by resisting heating graphite or using the arc method. C60 may be a superlubricant due to its lubricity. C60 with metal doping has a superconductivity that makes it a promising superconducting substance. C60 is also used in many different fields, including semiconductors.

(aka. Technology Co. Ltd., a global leader in chemical materials and nanomaterials with over 12 year’s experience as a supplier of super-high-quality chemicals. The powder that we produce is high-purity, with fine particles and low impurity levels. If you need lower, please contact our company.