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graphite nanoparticles (GR) have a broad range of applications including as electrode materials for high-performance AIBs [371, 398], energy storage systems and catalysts. They have a very low BET surface, and the small particle size provides high and reversible retention capacity. Moreover, they are environmentally benign and have low toxicity.

GO versus GR: Differences in redox potential and chemical reactivity between carbon nanoparticles

GO is structurally similar to quinones, which have carbon rings with pi electrons and functional groups rich in oxygen. However, GO has a much lower number of oxygen-containing groups and a higher concentration of pi electrons, which contribute to its lower conductivity and redox potential. Consequently, it is less reactive with organic compounds in a living organism than GR and has no reactivity to carbonyl compounds.

Glutathione levels in rat liver after 4 and 12 weeks of exposure to GO were significantly increased after 12 weeks of treatment. This increase could be attributed to the presence of GO nanoparticles in liver tissue and accumulation at the molecular level.

The results suggest that the toxicity of GO, which is structurally similar to quinones, was caused by the accumulation of GO particles in the liver tissues and not the injection into the liver. This observation supports the hypothesis that GO can be used in a biomedical application as a drug carrier for local therapies, which ensures that the drugs accumulate at the target site and slow release into the liver without any harmful systemic effects.