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CaO is an ionic compound with the chemical formula of calcium oxide (CaO). It is referred to as lime, quicklime, baked lime and burnt lime.
Melting point of a compound or polymer is the temperature at which it begins to melt or liquefy into a liquid state. It is a critical factor in determining whether a material will be able to be used for engineering applications, such as in the manufacture of glass and cement.
The melting point of a solid can be determined by various factors such as the charge and ionic radii of the ions. The higher the charge of a cation or anion, the stronger the forces of attraction between them. The ionic radii of ions also influence the melting and boiling points of a solid.
Sodium chloride has a lower melting point than magnesium oxide because the number of charges in NaCl is less than that in Mg2O. This is because NaCl is an alkali metal ion.
If you want to understand why, look at the periodic table of elements. You will see that group one metals, such as NaCl and LiCl, have low melting and boiling points. But as you go down the group, they have more metal properties and so their melting and boiling points decrease.
This is because the ionic bonds in these cations/anion are weaker than in other group one metals such as LiCl, KCl and RbCl. Because of this, a larger amount of thermal energy is required to separate the ion pairs in NaCl and Mg2O.